台東再傳狂犬病鼬獾誤傷人!民眾切記「2不1要原則」

專欄 2017.04.10 作者: 瑭芯
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台東縣又傳出狂犬病鼬獾誤傷人!行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局表示,台東縣東河鄉尚德村一位比丘尼於3月27日晚間,發現住處闖入生病鼬獾,基於善心將該動物裝於紙箱照顧,結果在餵飼給水時不慎遭狂躁的鼬獾唾液噴灑到眼睛;而鼬獾也於隔日死亡,經台東縣動物防疫所送家畜衛生試驗所檢驗,確認為狂犬病陽性案例。

台東確診為狂犬病陽性案例的鼬獾誤傷人後翌日死在該比丘尼住家門前。行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局提供

該比丘尼已於第一時間前往衛生福利部台東醫院就醫,並施打人用狂犬病疫苗。她表示在住家聽見有動物叫聲,經查看發現是一隻鼬獾,原以為是鼬獾口渴才會出現家中,想拿水給牠喝時,鼬獾突然狂躁的彈跳起來,眼睛不慎被唾液噴濺到,而隔天發現鼬獾死在家門前。台東防疫所表示這是今年第一例鼬獾傷人事件,顯示縣內狂犬病疫情仍未消失,持續在野生動物間傳播,已緊急會同東河鄉公所及村長,在東河鄉尚德村進行狂犬病防疫注射。

防檢局呼籲民眾遇到可能罹病動物,切勿接觸或冒險捕捉,以確保自身安全,並且切記「二不一要」原則。行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局提供

狂犬病存在台灣已至少超過210年,且成為在地化的病毒株,從沒有消失過,未來要讓其完全消失的可能性也非常低;狂犬病防治更是全球公共衛生重要議題,農委會特有生物研究中心路殺社統計,每年4月及10、11月是鼬獾路死高峰期,根據這幾年的追蹤,若只統計疫區的路死鼬獾篩檢結果,則有44.4%都感染了狂犬病(送驗117隻中有52隻為陽性反應)。

嚴格來說,目前台灣西部鼬獾整體的狂犬病感染率一直處於穩定狀態(40%左右)!但東部的台東及花蓮縣則是例外,2013年剛發現狂犬病疫情時,台東縣是正處於大爆發期,大量的鼬獾遭到狂犬病病毒感染而死亡,而隨著疫情的發展,目前疫情正從花蓮縣南部往中北部擴散,防疫的重點防線也因此由原本設定的秀姑巒溪往北移,但究竟現況為何?防疫線該設定在那裡?!由於沒有足夠的樣本供檢驗,防疫單位巧婦難為無米之炊。我們在此呼籲全台民眾,特別是花東地區的朋友們,能加入路殺社的通報行列,一發現有任何野生動物死亡,立即以路殺社的網路APP (https://roadkill.tw/app)回報資料,並協助防疫單位獲取足夠的動物樣本,為我們自身的健康盡一份心力。

資料來源農委會動植物防疫檢疫局。

面對狂犬病疫情勿漠視,也毋需過度恐慌,建立並延續正確觀念才是首要方針。依據世界衛生組織(WHO)及世界動物衛生組織(OIE)資料顯示,目前全世界每年約有7萬人死於狂犬病,其中95%以上是被犬隻咬傷,如犬貓疫苗施打率可達70%以上,即可提升整體免疫覆蓋率,有效防止狂犬病在人畜間傳播,確保人畜安全,為目前最經濟有效的防疫方式。防檢局表示,目前全台累計狂犬病案例發生地區為9縣市77鄉鎮。統計102年至迄今通報資料顯示,共有50件民眾遭食肉目野生動物抓咬傷,其中35例為鼬獾,經檢驗為狂犬病陽性個體,都是因發病而攻擊抓咬傷人。

防檢局並強調,野生動物皆具有野性,且狂犬病動物行為異常具主動攻擊性,民眾多因驚擾或冒險捕捉而遭咬傷;因此遇到可能罹病動物,切勿接觸或冒險捕捉,以確保自身安全。另外,若發現死亡或行為異常野生動物,請立即通報所在地動物防疫機關處置送驗。

誤傷人的狂犬病鼬獾是台東今年第一例,顯示縣內狂犬病疫情仍未消失,持續在野生動物間傳播。行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局提供

民眾若遭疑患狂犬病動物咬傷時,為避免感染狂犬病,應遵循「記、沖、送、觀」原則:1記:保持冷靜,牢記動物特徵。2沖:以大量肥皂、清水沖洗15分鐘,並以優碘消毒傷口。3送:儘速送醫評估是否需要接種疫苗。4觀:觀察動物行為,儘可能通報所在地動物防疫機關將咬人動物捕捉。防檢局呼籲民眾務必提高警覺,並且切記「二不一要」原則:不要任意接觸及捕捉野生動物,不要棄養寵物,要每年帶家中犬貓及人工飼養陸生食肉目動物施打狂犬病疫苗,以免受罰。如未依規定者,將依違反動物傳染病防治條例處新臺幣3萬元以上15萬元以下罰鍰。

 

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